Meal‐timing interventions facilitate weight loss primarily by decreasing appetite rather than by increasing energy expenditure. eTRF (Early Time Restricted Feeding) may also increase fat loss by increasing fat oxidation. The researchers found that eTRF did lower levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin and improved some aspects of appetite. It also increased fat-burning over the 24-hour day.

The authors of three large reviews recently published by statin advocates have attempted to validate the current dogma. This article delineates the serious errors in these three reviews as well as other obvious falsifications of the cholesterol hypothesis. "Our search for falsifications of the cholesterol hypothesis confirms that it is unable to satisfy any of the Bradford Hill criteria for causality and that the conclusions of the authors of the three reviews are based on misleading statistics, exclusion of unsuccessful trials and by ignoring numerous contradictory observations."

Calcium ions play a key role in the processes that make hearing possible. Previous research has shown that the fluid that surrounds the sensory cells in the cochlea has a low concentration of calcium ions, too low to allow these sensory cells to pass auditory signals at all. It is now found that the tectorial membrane that lies above these cells has high calcium concentrations, and when the calcium is removed from it, auditory signals do not pass. When hearing loud sounds, the calcium ions are depleted, and until the reserves of the tectorial membrane are filled again, we are left with temporary hearing impairment. 

Oncology patients undergoing cancer treatment experience an average of fifteen unrelieved symptoms that are highly variable in both their severity and distress. Recent advances in Network Analysis (NA) provide a novel approach to gain insights into the complex nature of co-occurring symptoms and symptom clusters and identify core symptoms. Findings from this study provide the first direct evidence that the connections between and among symptoms differ depending on the symptom dimension used to create the network. Based on an evaluation of the centrality indices, nausea appears to be a structurally important node in all three networks. Our findings can be used to guide the development of symptom management interventions based on the identification of core symptoms and symptom clusters within a network.

AD is associated with neuronal loss and progressive synaptic dysfunction, accompanied by the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, a cleavage product of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), and abnormal forms of tau protein, markers that have been used as diagnostic criteria for the disease. These constitute the hallmarks of AD, but whether they are causes of AD or consequences is unknown. We suggest that these are indicators of an infectious etiology. In the case of AD, it is often not realized that microbes can cause chronic as well as acute diseases; that some microbes can remain latent in the body with the potential for reactivation, the effects of which might occur years after initial infection; and that people can be infected but not necessarily affected, such that ‘controls’, even if infected, are asymptomatic.

Higher levels of aluminium in brain tissue in autism

The aluminium content of samples of neural tissue from individuals with autism spectrum disorder was measured using fluorescence microscopy, showing consistently and significantly higher levels of aluminium in these tissues: occipital, temporal, frontal and parietal lobes. 

The aluminium seemed to be present in non-neural, microglia cells in meninges, vasculature, grey and white matter. 

Further study could shed light on the source of aluminium in all brains and its possible negative effects concerning autism spectrum disorder.

Limitations to the study were the very small samples of brain tissue gathered (1g for each lobe) and the small sample studied (10 individuals). 

Secretin: a hormone released by the S cells of the duodenum in response to acid in the duodenum (also by neurons in the brain). Meal-associated rises in secretin levels stimulated lipolysis in BAT by binding to secretin receptors on BAT cells, which is then sensed in the brain and induces satiation. Secretin acts as a non-sympathetic BAT activator, promoting prandial thermogenesis. Mice injected with modified human secretin chronically, had increased energy expenditure in diet-induced obese mice. In humans, thermogenesis levels in BAT increased after a single meal, and so did glucose uptake by BAT. Therefore, this could be a potential target for treating obesity. 

Twenty RCTs with 1073 NAFLD patients were included. Compared to standard care, exercise improved serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (all P < 0.05). Ιntrahepatic fat also improved, irrespectively of weight change (SMD = −0.98, 95% CI: −1.30 to −0.66). Regarding the type of exercise, aerobic compared to resistance exercise did not yield any superior improvements on liver parameters, whereas moderate-to-high volume moderate-intensity continuous training was more beneficial compared to continuous low-to-moderate-volume moderate-intensity training or high intensity interval training. Interventions combining exercise and diet showed decreases in ALT (P < 0.01) and improvement in NAFLD activity score (SMD = −0.61, 95% CI: −1.09 to −0.13). Moderate-carbohydrate diets yielded similar changes in liver enzymes compared to low/moderate-fat diets.

Meta-analysis: The results from this systematically searched meta-analysis of RCTs support the idea that the consumption of ≥0.5 servings of total red meat/day does not influence blood lipids and lipoproteins or blood pressures.

Our results also suggest that increasing time in bed for an hour or so longer may lead to healthier food choices. This further strengthens the link between short sleep and poorer quality diets that has already been observed by previous studies. The 21 participants allocated to the sleep extension group undertook a 45-minute sleep consultation which aimed to extend their time in bed by up to 1.5 hours per night. A further 21 control group participants received no intervention in their sleep patterns.

Specific microbes in the elderly brain, notably herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), Chlamydia pneumoniae, and several types of spirochaete are implicated in the etiology of AD. In the case of AD, it is often not realized that microbes can cause chronic as well as acute diseases; that some microbes can remain latent in the body with the potential for reactivation, the effects of which might occur years after initial infection; and that people can be infected but not necessarily affected, such that ‘controls’, even if infected, are asymptomatic.

Exposure to extreme body stimuli results in a shift in the point of subjective normality, suggesting that visual adaptation may be a mechanism by which body size misperception occurs. Yet, despite being exposed to a similar set of bodies, some individuals within a given geographical area will develop body size misperception and others will not.Significant mediation effects were found in both men and women, suggesting that observers’ level of body satisfaction may influence selective visual attention to thin or fat bodies, which in turn influences the magnitude and direction of visual adaptation to body size. This may provide a potential mechanism by which some individuals develop body size misperception–a risk factor for eating disorders, compulsive exercise behaviour and steroid abuse–while others do not.

Mice that had experienced strokes were more likely to recover the ability to use a front paw if their whiskers were clipped following a stroke. Trimming the whiskers deprives an area of the mouse’s brain from receiving sensory signals from the animals’ whiskers. And it leaves that area of the brain more plastic – or receptive to rewiring to take on new tasks.troke rehab often focuses on trying to train patients to compensate for disability caused by the stroke, but this strategy has limited effectiveness. Our findings suggest that we may be able to stimulate recovery by temporarily vacating some brain real estate and making that region of the brain more plastic. One way to do that might be by immobilizing a healthy limb.

Plant-based diets are associated with decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not with decreased triglycerides.

Read an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. 

Individuals with high intakes of dietary fiber appear to be at significantly lower risk for developing coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and certain gastrointestinal diseases. Increasing fiber intake lowers blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels. Increased intake of soluble fiber improves glycemia and insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. Fiber supplementation in obese individuals significantly enhances weight loss. The recommended dietary fiber intakes for children and adults are 14g/1000 kcal.

We discovered that mice fed a high-salt diet developed dementia even when blood pressure did not rise. This was surprising since, in humans, the deleterious effects of salt on cognition were attributed to hypertension.

The mice were given food containing 4 percent or 8 percent salt, representing an 8- to 16-fold increase in salt compared to a normal mouse diet. The higher level was comparable to the high end of human salt consumption. After eight weeks, the scientists examined the mice using magnetic resonance imaging. The mice showed marked reductions in resting cerebral blood flow in two areas of the brain involved in learning and memory: 28 percent decrease in the cortex and 25 percent in the hippocampus.

“Much to our surprise, in studying the fate of eight neuronal and synaptic markers in our subjects’ prefrontal cortices, we only observed very minor neuronal and synaptic losses. Our study therefore suggests that, contrary to what was believed, neuronal and synaptic loss is relatively limited in Alzheimer’s disease. This is a radical change in thinking.”

The study implicitly suggests that dementia is associated with a synaptic dysfunction rather than the disappearance of synapses from the patient’s cortex. Identifying this dysfunction could lead to the development of effective treatments for this disease.

"Some cancers develop due to DNA damage in stem cells. While some damage occurs by chance, our findings suggest that drinking alcohol can increase the risk of this damage." They used chromosome analysis and DNA sequencing to examine the genetic damage caused by acetaldehyde, a harmful chemical produced when the body processes alcohol. They found that acetaldehyde can break and damage DNA within blood stem cells leading to rearranged chromosomes and permanently altering the DNA sequences within these cells.

A drug developed for diabetes could be used to treat Alzheimer's after scientists found it 'significantly reversed memory loss' in mice through a triple method of action. This is the first time that a triple receptor drug has been used which acts in multiple ways to protect the brain from degeneration. It combines three growth factors. Problems with growth factor signalling have been shown to be impaired in the brains of Alzheimer's patients.

The family tree study showed that whether you’re likely to have a boy or a girl is inherited. We now know that men are more likely to have sons if they have more brothers but are more likely to have daughters if they have more sisters. However, in women, you just can’t predict it.

"As these nitric oxide concentrations go down by another factor of two over the next five to seven years, we're going to start making more and more organic hydroperoxides in urban areas," In the air, these hydroperoxides are known to form particulates -- aerosols. "The problem is that we haven't seen large concentrations of hydroperoxides in heavily populated areas, so we don't know how the formation of gas and aerosol hydroperoxides will impact public health. But we do know that breathing in particles tends to be bad for you."

Food contamination at these low bacterial levels is likely to be more common than we recognize, while symptoms could be nonexistent or mild and disappear in a day or two without treatment. Repeated over time, we find that such minor infections are sufficient to trigger disease months and perhaps years later, depending upon the number and timing of infections an individual has experienced over his or her lifetime.

The researchers packaged a common cancer drug, doxorubicin, into bovine sperm cells and outfitted them with tiny magnetic harnesses. Using a magnetic field, a sperm-hybrid motor was guided to a lab-grown tumor of cervical cancer cells. When unleashed by the thousands, drug-loaded sperm killed more than 80 percent of a cancerous ball while leaking very little of their payload en route.

When healthier food, like vegetables and dairy products, is pricier compared to unhealthy items, like salty snacks and sugary sweets, Americans are significantly less likely to have a high-quality diet, a new Drexel University study found.

Overall, the participants’ scores on the thinking and memory tests declined at a rate of 0.08 standardized units per year. Over 10 years of follow-up, the rate of decline for those who ate the most leafy greens was slower by 0.05 standardized units per year than the rate for those who ate the least leafy greens. This difference was equivalent to being 11 years younger in age, according to Morris.

“I always tell my students before they write a test or an exam or go into an interview — or do anything that is cognitively demanding – they should get some exercise first,” Heath said. “Our study shows the brain’s networks like it. They perform better.

The efficacy of placenta capsules in promoting various health benefits was tested, including stemming the onset of postpartum ‘baby blues’ and depression of new mothers. The results of the new study find that such claims are not clearly supported.However, ingesting placenta capsules produced small but detectable changes in hormone concentrations that show up in a mother’s circulating hormone levels.

Stall in canonical autophagy-lysosome pathways prompts nucleophagy-based nuclear breakdown in neurodegeneration.Chronic autophagy blockage in several conditions, including DRPLA and Vici syndrome, an early-onset autolysosomal pathology, leads to the activation of alternative clearance pathways including Golgi membrane-associated and nucleophagy-based LaminB1 degradation and excretion. The combination of these alternative pathways and canonical autophagy blockade, results in dramatic nuclear pathology with disruption of the nuclear organization, bringing about terminal cell atrophy and degeneration.

UCSF researchers report maternal stress could impact the development of a child’s parasympathetic nervous system, both in utero and after birth. Additionally, children whose mothers were stressed during pregnancy smile less, are less engaged and have a diminished ability to regulate emotions.

They are potent antioxidants that provide cardioprotective, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Studies have shown absorbed flavonoids penetrate and accumulate in brain hippocampal regions involved in learning and memory. Eating nuts can help enhance cognitive function, learning and sleep. The study reveals pistachios produce the greatest gamma waves response, and peanuts produce an enhanced delta brain wave response.

The researchers implanted tumors from human patients into healthy rats. Those tumors which also had the bacteria took hold and began growing. Those tumours that did not have the bacteria failed to take hold. The team tested the possibility of treating the colon cancer in mice by treating them with an antibiotic known to kill F. nucleatum. They found that doing so did indeed slow the growth of the tumour.

The main findings showed that weight loss is common in Parkinson's disease and in the parkinsonian disorders and can occur in the early stages of the disease.  Further analysis showed that this early weight loss is associated with higher risk of becoming dependent (i.e. needing help with activities of daily living), of developing dementia, and of dying.

The "avatar therapy" consisted of a computer simulation of the main voice plaguing them, mimicking what it said for six-50min sessions. In the group overall there were "really large and signficant decreases in the amount of distress people felt in relation to their voices, the number of times a day they heard the voices, and the extent to which they felt overpowered by the voice.

The contents of consciousness are a subset of the experiences, emotions, thoughts and beliefs that are generated by non-conscious processes within our brains. 

This subset takes the form of a personal narrative, which is constantly being updated. The personal narrative exists in parallel with our personal awareness, but the latter has no influence over the former.

Our report showed that probiotics decrease anxiety values in populations with anxiety. These results are important for the management of anxiety. In the future, more adequately powered RCTs using standardized measurements are required to assess the speci c probiotics and dosages as well as the treatment periods that are most bene cial for anxiety. 

Klebsiella strains are resistant to multiple antibiotics, tend to colonize when the intestinal microbiota is dysbiotic, and elicit a severe gut inflammation in the context of a genetically susceptible host. Our findings suggest that the oral cavity may serve as a reservoir for potential intestinal pathobionts that can exacerbate intestinal disease.

Women who slept on their back or on their right side on the previous night (before stillbirth or interview) were more likely to experience a late stillbirth compared with women who slept on their left side. Women who got up to go to the toilet once or less on the last night were more likely to experience a late stillbirth compared with women who got up more frequently. 

Cinnamaldehyde improves metabolic health by acting directly on fat cells, or adipocytes, inducing them to start burning energy through a process called thermogenesis.This popular food additive, instead of a drug, could ultimately lead to therapeutic strategies against obesity that are much better adhered to by participants.

The familiar bloating only when eating the bars with fructan—they were fine when eating the controls and the bars with gluten. This, the researchers contend, suggests that it is fructan, not gluten that is causing widespread bowel problems.

This led to the discovery that after a heart attack, DNA from dying cells masquerades as a virus and activates an ancient antiviral program called the type I interferon response in specialized immune cells. The researchers named these "interferon inducible cells (IFNICs)."

"We were fascinated to observe how sleep deprivation dampened brain cell activity," said lead author Dr. Yuval Nir of Tel-Aviv University. "Unlike the usual rapid reaction, the neurons responded slowly, fired more weakly and their transmissions dragged on longer than usual."

Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. Replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Intermittent fasting protocols can be grouped into alternate-day fasting, whole-day fasting, and time-restricted feeding. Alternate-day fasting trials of 3 to 12 weeks in duration appear to be effective at reducing body weight (≈3%–7%), body fat (≈3–5.5 kg), total cholesterol (≈10%–21%), and triglycerides (≈14%–42%) in normal-weight, overweight, and obese humans. Whole-day fasting trials lasting 12 to 24 weeks also reduce body weight (≈3%–9%) and body fat, and favorably improve blood lipids (≈5%–20% reduction in total cholesterol and ≈17%–50% reduction in triglycerides). 

"We examined their food intake of omega-3 fatty acids using food frequency questionnaires and found these data, together with their serum levels of omega-3, were strongly associated with the diversity and number of species of healthy bacteria in the gut." 

Multiple regression analysis showed that the timing of food intake relative to melatonin onset was significantly associated with the percentage of body fat and body mass index (both P < 0.05) while controlling for sex, whereas no relations were found between the clock hour of food intake, caloric amount, meal macronutrient composition, activity or exercise level, or sleep duration and either of these body composition measures (all P > 0.72).

 Supplementation with ω-3 long chain-PUFA 2.9 g/day is well-tolerated, has a beneficial reductive effect on proinflammatory markers, and increases an anti-inflammatory marker, indicating that ω-3 long chain-PUFA could have a potential therapeutic impact on chronic inflammation in DMD.

Supplementation with ω-3 long chain-PUFA 2.9 g/day is well-tolerated, has a beneficial reductive effect on proinflammatory markers, and increases an anti-inflammatory marker, indicating that ω-3 long chain-PUFA could have a potential therapeutic impact on chronic inflammation in DMD.

“What we are saying is that even without new cellular protein synthesis, once a new connection is made, or a pre-existing connection is strengthened during encoding, that new pattern of connections is maintained,” Tonegawa says. “Even if you cannot induce natural memory recall, the memory information is still there.”

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